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Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Stem of Costus speciosus (J.Koenig) Smith.

*Dr. Manjiri M. Kulkarni, Professor, Dept. of Dravyaguna, MES Ayurved Mahavidylaya, Lote, Khed, Ratnagiri
Anushree H.S., Quality Control Laboratories, ALNRMAMC, Koppa,  Karnataka
*Corresponding Author:
Paper Received: 28-08-2019  Paper Accepted: 21-09-2020  Corrected: 11-11-20

Abstract: Background: Costus speciosus (J. Koenig) Smith. or Kebuka is known for use of rhizome in various problems including cough, rheumatism etc. However, other parts are also used. The stem is used in fever, dysentery etc. It is reported with saponins, steroids, flavonoids etc.
Materials and Methods: Macroscopic and microscopy were done. Photomicrographs were taken for transverse section of stem and powder of stem. Physicochemical analysis included the pharmacopoeial standards mentioned with Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Florescence tests, preliminary phytochemical tests and thin layer chromatography were done.
Result: The stem was greenish-brown externally and dull-white internally. It was sweet-astringent in taste with characteristic odour. The outline of TS was almost circular. At places, epidermal layer was traversed by uniseriate multicellular trichomes. Cortex was composed larger cells hexagonal to polygonal in shape interrupted by 2-3 rings of vascular bundles demarcated in 2-3 zones of cortex. The vascular bundles in cortex was collateral type capped with or enclosed in sclerenchyma fibers. The powder was dull white to off-white in colour exhibiting parenchyma cells, fragments of spiral type of xylem vessels etc. under microscope. The preliminary phytochemical tests of alcohol extract exhibited presence of all secondary metabolites. The thin layer chromatography showed 5 spots in taken solvent system.
Discussion: Sclerenchyma fibers present as cap of cortical vascular bundles were observed in ring, it was absent in stellar vascular bundles. 86-88% moisture was present fresh stem. Specific study on structures of these compounds is needed to explore the further pharmacological aspects of stem.
Key words: Kebuka, Costus speciosus, Pharmacognosy, Thin Layer Chromatography ………….

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