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Editorial- June-2023

Historical evidences present the leadership of India in spices since 7000 years. Even Ayurveda has advocated the use of many of these plants as single herbal drugs or in various formulations. These plants increase the taste of food and, also have many medicinal properties. Various pharmacological activities of distinguished spices have been evaluated. An article published in Nutrients on 30th May revealed the effective natural treatment of cardiovascular and coronary artery diseases using taurine and black pepper extracts. Authors have highlighted the anti-atherogenic effect by suppression of hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidemia.
Taurine is an amino sulfonic acid naturally occurring in meat or fishes. It plays important role in metabolism, energy production, processing of bile production, balancing of fluids and minerals. It targets renin-angiotensin pathway to control cardiac overactivity. Distinct compounds present with black pepper have been already assessed for many therapeutic effects. Piperine is an alkaloid present with black pepper. The average quantity is 4-5%. It promotes increased macrophage cholesterol efflux by upregulation ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) and that is related to therapeutic and in preventive application of atherosclerosis. It is also associated with prevention of adhesion of lipid molecules and protection against lipid peroxidation. Even, Charak Sutrasthana 27/298 mentions Kapha and Vata absorbing and extracting characters of black pepper i.e., removal of cholesterol and alleviation of pain. In number of formulations used in Ayurveda for cardiovascular and coronary artery diseases, Maricha (black pepper) is common. Piperine is also proven for amelioration of cardiac injury and vasodilation effects. The extract of the black pepper inhibits pro-inflammatory nuclear factor, cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor cell proliferation. These are linked to presence of inflammation and scar in heart.
Detailed pre-clinical and clinical investigations are needed to check effects of various essential oil components of black pepper on cardiovascular and coronary artery diseases.