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Tantrayuktis: Steps of Scientific Understanding and Expression

* Dr. Prashant Kumar Jha, ALNRMAMC, Koppa
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Received on: 06-05-2022      Accepted: 21-08-2022      Corrected: 30-08-2022

Abstract: Background: Tantrayukti is an important tool mentioned in various ancient Indian texts for appropriate understanding and expression of scientific and logical literatures. Charak Samhita has quoted 36 yuktis in comparison of 32 cited in Sushruta Samhita.
2. Materials and Methods: A detailed review was done from available Indian philosophical books, ayurvedic texts, ancient literature texts, sanskrit texts and websites,
3. Result: Purpose: The purpose of tantrayukti lies with rational understanding of subject based on reasoning to acquire right cognition.
3.2: Approaches of distinguished yuktis:3.2.1: Statement of main topic: It is hypothetical dogma in form of statement.
3.2.2: Elaboration of topic: Comprehensive view of topic based in various characteristics and specific contexts are presented.
3.2.3: Purpose of understanding or expression: The initiation of the purpose or object for that action is called as prayojanam.
3.2.4: Identification of concept: A conceptual argument (statement) based on first expression is called as purvapaksha.
3.2.5: Finding out of rationality or reasoning: It is associated with cause and effect relationship. For understanding a subject, it should be as per vidhanam.
3.2.6: Crossing the concept with context: Upadesha means instruction of given context.
3.2.7: Illustration with example and references or scientific discussion: A statement with example to for clarity in expression is called as nirdesham.
3.2.8: Decision or finalization: Nirnaya is conclusive statement achieved based on arguments.
4.: Conclusion: It is suggested to be applied in all the cases appropriately. Tantrayukti offers a greater prospect for further research, specifically in literary research.
Keywords: Tantrayuktis, Charak Samhita, Understanding, Expression…………

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The word Tantrayukti is a combined word with its constituent words of Tantra and Yukti. Tantra has multiple meanings including doctrine, scientific work, theory, principle, essential part etc.1 Charak Sutrasthana 30/31 mentions Tantra as synonym of Ayurveda2. The word Yukti means union, combination, devices, reasoning, proof etc.3 So, Tantrayukti is device for scientific and rational understanding. Tantrayukti is medium of scientific arguments4. It is used to strengthen one’s own statements based on rational logics. It is further utilized for clarification and justification of hidden realities5. Authors and readers are recommended to use Tantrayukti for understanding of concepts or theories. According to bhasya of Nyayasutra 1.1.4, acceptance of others’ rational logic is also a Tantrayukti6. 36 Tantrayuktis are mentioned in Charak Siddhisthana 12/41-447 and Ashtanga Sangraha Uttarsthana 50/150-1538. Sushruta Samhita Uttartantra 65th chapter cites 32 Tantrayuktis5. Even Arthashastra has also specified 32 Tantrayuktis9. Sequencing of these Yuktis differ in Arthshastra, Sushruta Samhita and Charak Samhita. Ashtanga Sangraha has taken similar to Charak Samhita. Prayojanam, Pratyutsara, Uddhara and Sambhava are four not included in Sushruta Samhita. Charak Siddhisthana 12/45-46 alludes to applications of these Yuktis wholly in all written materials for the purpose of elaboration and assimilation of undertaken concerned topics10. Systematic and judicious implementations are essential with understanding of all other factors leaving impacts in reference to taken contexts. So, cautious uses are important.

2. Materials and Methods
A detailed review was done from available Indian philosophical books, ayurvedic texts, ancient literature texts, sanskrit texts and websites, .
3. Result
3.1: Purpose of Tantrayukti: Purposes as mentioned Charak Siddhisthana 12/46-54 can be enumerated as10:
1. Rational understanding of concepts and topics.
2. Understanding of all concerned factors related to concepts and topics.
3. Using as weapons for protection based on reasoning.
4. To find out the merits and demerits in order to acquire right cognition.
5. To generate new ideas based on logics.
6. Appropriate utilization in practices.
7. For advancements in self-control, memory, knowledge and virtue.
8. To become expert in therapeutics.
9. To become a good thinker.
10. To sort out the contradiction related to topic.
11. For better and elaborated expression.
3.2: Approaches of distinguished yuktis: It is specified for logical understanding and expression of subject. It can be divided under following broad groups as:

3.2.1: Statement of main topic: Adhikarana, uddesha and ateeveksha padartha are related with main topic. Adhikarana means a topic or subject or chapter in philosophy11. It is considered as hypothetical dogma, the acceptance of that leads to acceptance of another fact12. Still, in this case, subject undertaken for understanding is not proven. It is used to know units of scientific works covered under one umbrella13. Once subject is taken for the study, thereafter uddesha comes in existence. It is brief statement of the subject or topic22. It is used to guide nirdesha. Statement in uddesha should be in connection with previously undertaken similar topic and that is ateeveksha. It is referred to already stated statement or reference43. It functions as connector of undertaken topic with past one.

3.2.2: Elaboration of the topic: Nirdesh is elaboration of Uddesha and detailed statement of the subject or topic23. Detailed explanation of subjects from all aspects is vyakhyanam41. It is connected with comprehensive view of the topic with distinguishing characteristics. Such description of subject is in specific context and that is known as Prasanga33. It is about the repetition of description of subject due to raised occasion. It deals with interrelated topics.

3.2.3: Purpose of the study (understanding or expression): Once topic is ascertained then purpose of the study should be defined. The initiation of the purpose or object for that action is called as prayojanam25. It means aim should be well defined and accordingly aim should be segmented in objectives to achieve the purpose. It deals with the nature of work undertaken. Even the readers and authors are directed to proceed as per the purpose. Nyayasutra 1.1.24 mentions that an object is capable of being either accepted or rejected26. The object to prove the meaning of sentence is called as hetvartha17. Sushruta Uttartantra 65/11 illustrates hetvartha to deal something invisible with example of visible18. It is suggested for clarifying the sentence18. At times, doubt generated due to oscillating perception based on mutually opposite properties simultaneously also needs clarification. Such doubt is called as samshaya42. It offers readers and authors to concentrate on both sides of scientifically logical arguments.

3.2.4: Identification of the concept: After establishing the purpose of the study, concept behind the topic is carefully chosen. A conceptual argument (statement) based on first expression is called as purvapaksha. Based on various rational arguments such statement can be accepted or refuted38. Such statement is based on doubts that needs answers to sort out those doubts. It enables reader to logically accept or refute the subject or topic or statement. Acceptance or refutation is based on understanding of concept associated with rational liking of meaningful words in form of sentence. This is called as yoga. Linking should be symmetric and regular to deal with scientific conceptions properly16. Detailed understanding of concepts is possible by perception of subsidiary concept under main concept and by knowledge of comprehensive meanings of words used. A meaning of the word is called as padartha17. It is contained in words. It must have existence, knowability and namability20.
3.2.5: Finding out of rationality or reasoning: The basis of rationality is cause and effect phenomenon. Adducement of causes or reasons to support the work is apadesha28. It is associated with cause and effect relationship. For understanding a subject, it should be as per vidhanam. It means systematic presentation of facts in particular context39. It is about the creation, arrangement and interpretation of facts as per guidelines enabling readers about the scientific systematics and coherent meanings of used words and sentences. Number of times specific terminologies are used. Technical terms usually not mentioned in others texts are called as swasamgya45. These terms themselves are able to indicate the details.
Sometimes, knowledge is obtained based on deductive reasoning after invariable concomitance with subject. Such knowledge is called as sambhava54. This is related with using all possibilities for suitable inference. Occasionally, statement of exception is also used. Such exception is termed as apavarga. It is associated with acquaintance of both general rule and exception to avoid the improper knowledge. Periodically, expression with meaning opposed to already is also taken, this is called as viparyaya. It is contradictory statement accepted as relevant37. It is not based on implied meaning, but completely opposite meaning. Occasionally, it is based on guess. A rational guess for the fact not mentioned is called as uhya or uhyam46. It is inferred from the context based on scientific concepts or previously done experiments. Once in a while, a word is understood with contextual clues of a sentence, even though not stated. In that sentence, it is called as vakyashesha24. It is used to understand the realities.
3.2.6: Crossing the concept with context: Concepts identified for knowledge should be in specific context. Upadesha means instruction of given context27. It is related to necessary guidelines or steps to be opted for completion of task. If a statement is implied for circumstantial implications even without stated, it is termed as arthapatti30. The implied meaning is based on the words used in sentence. It is based on deduction reasoning. From time to time, reasoning is also based on prediction for future. Prediction of future based on present trend or condition is atidesha29. Such predictions are based on measures of associations between variables or factors under consideration. It is based on certain principles.
3.2.7: Illustration with example and references or scientific discussion: A statement with example to for clarity in expression is called as nirdesham48. Citation of example is for the purpose of exhibition of special features. Many times, example is given with one sentence. It is a sentence restricted to one meaning. It is categorical sentence with definite meaning34. This is statement or sentence without any difference of opinion, so it is true in all cases. If two views are attended then, naikant is used. It is statement not definite in nature35. It exhibits flexibility of rules and allows to express based on different opinions. On occasion, others views are taken as an example. Anumatam is related to acceptance of others’ views40. Others scientifically logical views are accepted to use for one’s own purpose. Even the readers get familiarized with the topic.
Statement proposed to be taken later at appropriate place for understaning or expression is called as anagatveksha44. It is prospective reference. It suggests to recognize the related topics. Quoting two or more references in single statement also happens. Samuchchya means conjunction of words together to show similar class or group47. This is about the quoting the two more references of similar group in single statement to enable readers aware about the similar class. Already proven subject is also taken as an example. It comes in form of command. A statement with command is called as niyoga or sanniyoga50,51. It is an injunction. A statement reaffirming the one’s view is uddhara53. It is associated with pointing out the opponent’s misconception based on reasoning. For different aspects of a topic, a word revealing alternative is also used. It is known as vikalpa or vikalpanam52. Reflections of alternatives gives idea to use words or statement or subject based similar qualities so, different aspects of topics are known to readers. Same way, some examples deny other’s opinion. A statement denying others’ opinions based on rationalities is called as pratyutsara53. For an author, such statements provide opportunity to rationally establish one’s own fact or opinion.
3.2.8: Decision: After exhausting rational thinking and cross-checking from all available tools in forms of mentioned yuktis, any conclusive statement is made. Nirnaya is conclusive statement achieved based on arguments31. It is about the ascertainment of knowledge32. It assists in firm understanding of subject. This is source of definite cognition.
4. Conclusion: Treatise based science and logics have used Tantrayukti frequently in ancient and medieval India. Tantrayukti is a systematic tool for understanding and expression. Structural analysis of subjects and selected topics are discerned using Tantrayukti. It is suggested to be applied in all the cases appropriately. It was a tool of literary research of ancient India. A detailed screening of Tantrayukti from modern methodoligies of research would offers a greater prospect for further research, specifically in literary research.
Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest lies as per author.
Funding: Not funded
References:
1. Monier-Williams (1899). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Reprint. p.436. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.
2. Sharma, P.V. (2014). Trans. Charak Samhita, Vol. I. Revised ed. p.242. Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
3. Ibid. Monier-Williams (1899). p.853.
4. Vidyabhusana, S.C. (1921). A History of Indian Logic (Ancient, Mediaeval and Modern Schools). p.24. Calcutta University.
5. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Trans. & Ed. Sushruta Samhita, Vol. III. First ed. p.631. Chaukhambha Visvabharati, Varanasi.
6. Shastri, D. (1976). Ed. Nyayadarsana of Maharsi Gautama & Bhasya of Maharsi Vatysayana. pp.21-22. Buddha Bharati, Varanasi.
7. Sharma, P.V. (1998). Trans. Charak Samhita, Vol. II. Fourth ed. pp.681-682. Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
8. Murthy, K.R.S. (2009). Trans. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vahbhata, Vol. III. Uttarsthana. pp.538-539. Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.

9. Shastri, U. (1925). Trans. Kautilya Arthashastra. p.621. Meharchand Lakshmandas, Sanskrit Pustakalaya, Lahore.
10. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (1998). pp.682-683.
11. Ibid. Monier-Williams (1899). p.20.
12. Jha, G. (1994). Trans. The Nyaya-Sutras of Gautama with The Bhashya of Vatsyayana and The Vartika of Uddyotkara. Vol. 1. p.349. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.
13. Lele, W.K. (2006). Methodlogy of Indian Sciences. pp.41-43. Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi.
14. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/9. pp.631-632.
15. Jha, G. (1928). Trans. Vamana’s Kavyalanakara-Sutra-Vritti. Second Ed., Revised. p.9. Oriental Book Agency, Poona.
16. Ibid. Jha, G. (1928). Trans. Vamana’s Kavyalanakara-Sutra-Vritti. p.29.
17. Shastri, U. (1925). Trans. Kautilya Arthashastra. p.622.
18. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/11. p.632.
19. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/10. p.632.
20. Jha, H.M. (). Bharatiya Darshan-Parichaya. Second Volume. Vaisheshik Darshana. p.15. Pustak-Bhandar, Laheriasarai.
21. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/16. p.633.
22. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/12. p.632.
23. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/13. p.633.
24. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/19. p.634.
25. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2014). Charak Samhita, Vol. I. Vimanasthana 8/44. pp.363-364.
26. Ibid. Jha, G. (1994). The Nyaya-Sutras of Gautama with The Bhashya of Vatsyayana and The Vartika of Uddyotkara. Vol. 1. p.339.
27. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/14. p.633.
28. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/15. p.633.
29. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/17. p.633.
30. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/17. p.634.
31. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/27. p.635.
32. Ibid. Jha, G. (1994). The Nyaya-Sutras of Gautama with The Bhashya of Vatsyayana and The Vartika of Uddyotkara. Vol. 1. p.461.
33. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/22. p.634.
34. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/23. pp.634-635.
35. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/24. p.635.
36. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/18. pp.633-634.
37. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/21. p.634.
38. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/25. p.635.
39. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/29. pp.635-636.
40. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/28. p.635.
41. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/33. p.636.
42. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/32. p.636.
43. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/31. p.636.
44. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/30. p.636.
45. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/34. p.636.
46. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/40. p.638.
47. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/38. p.637.
48. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/36. p.637.
49. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/35. p.637.
50. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/37. p.637.
51. Dasgupta, S.N. (1932). A History of Indian Philosophy. Vol. II. p.98. Cambridge, At the University Press.
52. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (2001). Sushruta Samhita, Uttaratantra 65/39. p.637.
53. Ibid. Sharma, P.V. (1998). p.682.
54. Jha, G. (1984). Trans. The Nyaya-Sutras of Gautama with The Bhashya of Vatsyayana and The Vartika of Uddyotkara. Vol. II. Reprint. p.882. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.