*Dr. Milind Hukkeri, Professor, Dept. of RS & BK, ALNRMAMC, Koppa
*Dr. Prashant Kumar Jha, ALNRMAMC, Koppa
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Received on: 31-05-2022 Accepted: 13-08-2022 Corrected: 25-08-2022
ABSTRACT: Background: Saptarmita rasa is an important formulation used in all types of diseases of mouth. Its composition includes minerals and metals along with herbs as Parada bhasma, Abhraka bhasma, Loha bhasma, Suddha (purified) Shilajita, Suddha Guggulu, Suddha Manahshila and Swarnamakshika bhasma. Analysis based on pharmacopoeial standards and quantitative estimation of elements present with formulation are required.
2. Materials and Methods: The physicochemical analysis consists of organoleptic evaluation, ash values, extractive values, pH, preliminary phytochemical tests, fluorescence tests, thin layer chromatography and quantitative estimation of minerals and metals.
3. Result: Total ash was noted 46.05% while the pH was 5.94. Carbohydrates, tannin, flavonoids and other compounds were present. 11 spots were noted in thin layer chromatography with specified solvent system. The particle size was noted in range of 2 µm to 40 µm. The quantitative estimation of minerals and metals exhibited 12.25% mercury, 6.25% arsenic and 5.85% iron. Other elements were comparatively lower in quantity.
4: Discussion and Conclusion: Higher ash values and lower extractive values are due to minerals and metals present with the formulation. Greater quantity of mercury and iron are due to parada bhasma and abhraka bhasma. Manhashila attributed to the increased quantity of arsenic.
Keywords: Saptamrita rasa, Parada, Abhraka, Loha, Shilajita, Guggulu, Manahshila, Swarnamakshika, Analysis…….
Download Complete Article in PDF
Mineral and metals are parts of various formulations of Ayurveda. Many of these mineral and metal drugs are processed with herbs to bring in herbomineral forms. Bhasma preparations are important among formulations of minerals and metals. They are prepared with mechanical energy transfer using shodhana (purification) followed by heat treatment as per puta requirements1. This is suggested to be ancient nanotechnology technique to reduce the size of elements1. With present innovations of nanotechnology greater prospects of mineral and metal drugs are opened2. Various bhasmas are used medicinally for diversified physiological problems. Some preparations include combination of bhasmas and herbal parts as Saptamrita Rasa. It is prescribed in all types of diseases of mouth3.
Saptamrita rasa is combination of Parada bhasma, Abhraka bhasma, Loha bhasma, Suddha (purified) Shilajita, Suddha Guggulu, Suddha Manahshila and Swarnamakshika bhasma. These ingredients contain various elements as mercury, iron, copper, arsenic, magnesium, silicon, aluminium and potassium. Numbers of works have been separately done for medicinal uses of these elements as in a cross-sectional study on processed mercury consumption at the dose of 130 µg/kg/day, no adverse effects, but beneficial effects were reported4. Iron is essential for various physiological functions from cellular to organism level5. The diversity of function depends upon bond formation and adjacent ligands or on overall complex formation with proteins and other biomolecules6. Evidences on wound healing and antimicrobial effects of copper are also present7. Utilization of nanotechnology allows copper to achieve diversified shape and make specific complexes important for different clinical applications8. Arsenic trioxide is approved drug for promyelocytic leukaemia2. Arsenic sulphide inhibits prostate cancer proliferation by targeting large tumour suppressor kinase 2 (LATS2)9. Sulphur in different forms are suggested for depression, diabetes, interstitial cystitis, cancer etc.10 Magnesium is an essential element needed for various enzymatic actions. It is also used in headache, migraine, diabetes, asthma etc.11 Silicon is important for immune health, bone mineralization, collage synthesis etc.12 Aluminium is used as an adjuvant in vaccines, antacids, hemorrhoidal medications etc.13 Potassium is important electrolyte required for health of heart and bone.
Medicinal properties and probable side-effects of these elements are dose-dependent. The dose of Saptamrita rasa is mentioned as 800 mg- 1000 mg3. The quantity of elements in prescribed dose is vital to find out the effects of these elements separately or in combined forms. Hence, physico-chemical analysis of Saptamrita rasa was selected for the study.
2. Materials and Methods
Parada bhasma, Abhraka bhasma, Loha bhasma, Suddha (purified) Shilajita, Suddha Guggulu, Suddha Manahshila and Swarnamakshika bhasma were procured from Bhanu Healthcare, Hubli. All ingredients were mixed one after other in sequence. The mixture was triturated well using mortar and pestle to get the homogenous blend3. Thereafter, it was passed through sieve number 44 (mess aperture of 355 µm).
The complete analysis was done in Quality Control Laboratories, ALNRMAMC, Koppa. All chemicals used for analysis were from HIMEDIA. Organoleptic characters were evaluated for colour, taste, odour and appearance. The procedures for loss on drying at 105°C, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble extractives and alcohol soluble extractives were used as per given in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India14. pH was determined for 10% aqueous solution using microprocessor digital pH meter of Systronics. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was done for hydroalcoholic extract15,16. Fluorescence studies of powder was done using 10% of acids and alkalis. The microscopical method was used to measure the particle size using fluorescent microscope with camera from Dewinter. The quantitative analysis of potassium and calicum was done on flame photometer 128 of Systronics. The quantity of mercury17, arsenic18, iron19, copper20, aluminium21, silica22, magnesium23 and sulfur24 was determined by gravimetric and volumetric methods. Thin layer chromatography was done on silica coated plates. The solvent system used was toluene and ethyl acetate in ratio of 8: 2.
3.1. Physico-chemical Parameters: The result is shown in table number:1.
Table Number: 1
Moisture content : 1.26%
Total ash : 46.05%
Acid insoluble ash : 30.74%
Water soluble extractives : 6.28%
Alcohol soluble extractives : 7.34%
pH : 5.94 + 0.10
3.2: Preliminary Phytochemical Test: The result of preliminary phytochemical tests are shown in table number: 2
Table Number: 2
Phytochemical constituents Present/Absent
3.3.:Fluorescence test: The result is shown in table number: 3.
Table Number: 3
Powder and solvent Under visible light Under long UV
Powder + water Brown red Fluorescent green
Powder + alcohol Reddish-grey Fluorescent yellow
Powder + 10% NaOH Dark brown Fluorescent green
Powder + 10% NH3 Dark maroon Fluorescent green
Powder + 10% HCl Light maroon Fluorescent green
Powder + 10% H2SO4 Light brown Fluorescent yellow
Powder + 10% HNO3 Greyish-red Fluorescent green
3.4.: Particle size: The size of particles was observed in range of 2µm to 40 µm (Photo number: 2).
3.5.: Quantitative estimation: The quantitative estimation of various elements is shown in table number:4.
Table Number: 4
Element Quantity (in percentage) Mercury 12.25%
3.6: Thin layer chromatography: The Rf values noted under visible light and under long UV are shown in table number: 5 (Photo number: 3).
Table Number: 5
Rf values Under visible light Under ling UV
0.02 Green Bright fluorescent greenish yellow
0.05 — Bright fluorescent cream
0.07 — Bright fluorescent cream
0.11 Orange Fluorescent green
0.18 Light yellow Fluorescent green
0.35 — Fluorescent green
0.47 — Fluorescent green
0.55 — Fluorescent green
0.71 — Fluorescent blue
0.81 — Fluorescent blue
0.88 — Fluorescent green
4. Discussion and Conclusion
Preliminary phytochemical tests exhibited presence of carbohydrate, tannin, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponin and alkaloids. It was due to use of herbs and purification and due to presence of Guggulu. Different colours under visible light and under long UV in fluorescence tests is useful qualitative tests for formulation.
The quantitative estimation of elements was observed in percentage as 12.25, 6.25, 5.85, 4.42, 2.62, 2.12, 1.45, 1.15, 1.12 and 0.95 respectively for mercury, arsenic, iron, sulphur, aluminium, silica, potassium, calcium, magnesium and copper. The highest value of mercury is due to Parada bhasma and Manashila. Even iron is also found in Loha bhasma and Abhraka bhasma.
So, undertaken formulation for the study is combination of minerals and metals with plants. Number of further studies are required to find out the structural changes of minerals and metals with processing and their complex formation of organic compounds with herbal ingredients.
Photo No.: 1
Showing mixing through trituration
Photo Number: 2
Showing Particle Size
Photo Number: 3
Thin Layer Chromatography
Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest lies as per author.
Funding: Not funded
1. Pal, D., Sahu, C. K., & Haldar, A. (2014). Bhasma : The ancient Indian nanomedicine. Journal of advanced pharmaceutical technology & research, 5(1), 4–12. https://doi.org/10.4103/2231-4040.126980
2. Zhong, X., Di, Z., Xu, Y., Liang, Q., Feng, K., Zhang, Y., Di, L., & Wang, R. (2022). Mineral medicine: from traditional drugs to multifunctional delivery systems. Chinese medicine, 17(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13020-022-00577-9
3. Mishra, S. (2018). Trans. Kaviraj Srigovinddassenvirachita Bhaisajya Ratnavali. Rev. ed. Mukharogadhikar. p.963. Chowkhamba Vidyabhawan, Varanasi
4. Sallon, S., Dory, Y., Barghouthy, Y., Tamdin, T., Sangmo, R., Tashi, J., Yangdon, S., Yeshi, T., Sadutshang, T., Rotenberg, M., Cohen, E., Harlavan, Y., Sharabi, G., & Bdolah-Abram, T. (2017). Is mercury in Tibetan Medicine toxic? Clinical, neurocognitive and biochemical results of an initial cross-sectional study. Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.), 242(3), 316–332. https://doi.org/10.1177/1535370216672748
5. Chifman, J., Laubenbacher, R., & Torti, S. V. (2014). A systems biology approach to iron metabolism. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 844, 201–225. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2095-2_10
6. Kontoghiorghes, G. J., & Kontoghiorghe, C. N. (2020). Iron and Chelation in Biochemistry and Medicine: New Approaches to Controlling Iron Metabolism and Treating Related Diseases. Cells, 9(6), 1456. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061456
7. Arendsen, L. P., Thakar, R., & Sultan, A. H. (2019). The Use of Copper as an Antimicrobial Agent in Health Care, Including Obstetrics and Gynecology. Clinical microbiology reviews, 32(4), e00125-18. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00125-18
8. Jiang, Y., Huo, Z., Qi, X., Zuo, T., & Wu, Z. (2022). Copper-induced tumor cell death mechanisms and antitumor theragnostic applications of copper complexes. Nanomedicine (London, England), 17(5), 303–324. https://doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2021-0374
9. Cao, H., Feng, Y., & Chen, L. (2017). Repression of MicroRNA-372 by Arsenic Sulphide Inhibits Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration through Regulation of large tumour suppressor kinase 2. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology, 120(3), 256–263. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.12687
10. Parcell S. (2002). Sulfur in human nutrition and applications in medicine. Alternative medicine review: a journal of clinical therapeutic, 7(1), 22–44.
11. Schwalfenberg, G. K., & Genuis, S. J. (2017). The Importance of Magnesium in Clinical Healthcare. Scientifica, 2017, 4179326. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4179326
12. Martin K. R. (2013). Silicon: the health benefits of a metalloid. Metal ions in life sciences, 13, 451–473. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_14
13. J.L. Domingo (2003). Aluminium Toxicology. Editor(s): Benjamin Caballero in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition. Sec. Ed. pp. 160-166. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-227055-X/00035-3.
14. Anonymous: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part I. Appedices: 2.2.3., 2.2.4., 2.2.6., 2.2.7. and 2.2.9. Dept. of Indian System of Medicines and Homeopathy. Ministry of Health & Family welfare, Government of India, New Delhi.
15. Shah, B. and Seth, A.K. (2010). Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. Reed Elsevier India Private Limited.
16. Harborne, J.B. (1973). Phytocehmical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. Chapman and Hall Ltd.
17. Anonymous: Pharmacopoeial Standards for Ayurvedic Formulations. p.528. Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, Dept. of Indian System of Medicines and Homeopathy. Ministry of Health & Family welfare, Government of India, New Delhi.
18. Ibid. Anonymous: Pharmacopoeial Standards for Ayurvedic Formulations. pp.521-522.
19. Ibid. Anonymous: Pharmacopoeial Standards for Ayurvedic Formulations. pp.525-526.
20. Ibid. Anonymous: Pharmacopoeial Standards for Ayurvedic Formulations. p.524.
21. Ibid. Anonymous: Pharmacopoeial Standards for Ayurvedic Formulations. pp.519-520.
22. Ibid. Anonymous: Pharmacopoeial Standards for Ayurvedic Formulations. pp.529-530.
23. Ibid. Anonymous: Pharmacopoeial Standards for Ayurvedic Formulations. pp.527-528.
24. Ibid. Anonymous: Pharmacopoeial Standards for Ayurvedic Formulations. pp.530-531.
25. Silva, D. A. D., Aires, G. C. M., & Pena, R. D. S. (2020). Gums—Characteristics and Applications in the Food Industry. In A. o. de Barros, & I. Gouvinhas (Eds.), Innovation in the Food Sector Through the Valorization of Food and Agro-Food By-Products. IntechOpen. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.95078
26. Ayanda, I. O., Ekhator, U. I., & Bello, O. A. (2019). Determination of selected heavy metal and analysis of proximate composition in some fish species from Ogun River, Southwestern Nigeria. Heliyon, 5(10), e02512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e0251