Association of gender with aging is not a matter of debate now. Number of researches has evidently shown that women age differently than men. Recently a research conducted on Drosophila and published in Nature Aging on 1st December reveals effects of rapamycin, a mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor drug extending the lifespan in females, but not in males. The research suggests the increased enterocyte autophagy in females via H3/H4 histone-Bchs (Blue cheese) axis, while unaltered in males. A review study by Lemaitre et al. on 101 species of mammals discloses the average female’s median lifespan 18.6 % longer than males. In human beings, it was noted 7.8% more. Diversified studies have shown the differences in immune responses, autoimmunity, stress and emotional regulations, metabolism etc. based on gender.
Regan and Patridge (2013) mentioned the cross-regulation of steroid hormone and nutrient sensing signaling pathways for aging process. The females have greater plasticity for nutrient-sensing pathways, a source of life extension.
Apart from the sex hormones, neurotransmitters also play pivotal roles for such differences. Increased dopamine in females are reported. Reduced dopamine is connected with lower level of enthusiasm and motivation leading to less physical and mental activities. Less activities are related to depression and release of linked neurochemicals affecting aging .
A research on rodents exposes the differential postsynaptic sensitivity of locus coeruleus neurons to corticotropin-releasing factor based on gender, as it was more potent in females. It means better control over blood pressure in stress.
Wang et al. (2019) reported faster decline in volume of right putamen, right pallidium and right thalamus in males with age. These subcortical structures are related to psychopathologies of various stress related disorders. Researchers predicate the strong work pressure as cause. Other studies highlight the reduced testosterone due to stress. The level of testosterone is connected with aging.
Many other factors may work separately or altogether. Details of researches are required.