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A Review on Antitoxic Effects of Haridra Against Gara Visha

Dr. Bharat Bhushan, PG Scholar, Dept.of Agada Tantra,R.G. Govt. PG Ayurvedic College, Paprola, H.P.
*Dr. Jaram Singh, Professor, HOD, Dept.of Agada Tantra,R.G. Govt. PG Ayurvedic College, Paprola, H.P.
Dr. Rajveer, Lecturer, Dept.of Agada Tantra,R.G. Govt. PG Ayurvedic College, Paprola, H.P.
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Received on: 17-09-2022           Accepted: 02-10-2022           Corrected: 22-10-2022

Abstract: Background: Poison is a substance that kills, injures or harms living organism through its chemicals. It is termed as Visha in Ayurveda. Three types of Visha are mentioned in Ayurveda including sthavara, jangham and kritrima. Kritrima visha is further classified as Dushi and Gara visha. Gara visha is incompatible combination of poisonous and non-poisonous substances. It causes weakening of digestive system and other immunity related disorders. To treat these toxic effects vishaghna drugs are mentioned. Haridra is one of them working through different mechanism to improve the conditions.
2. Materials and Methods: Various literatures including scientific articles, books and databases were searched.
3. Result: 3.1: Anti-inflammatory effects: Essential oil and curcuminoids of Haridra have proven anti-inflammatory effects through nociceptive effects, inflammatory mediators and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.
3.2: Antioxidant effects: Haridra has shown to reversal of oxidative stress through various pathways.
3.3: Gastroprotective effects: The works on gastroprotective effects of Haridra have shown antiulcer activities.
3.4: Hepatoprotective and Spleen protector effects: Haridra is proven to work through antioxidant activities and regulations of gene expression responsible hepatic damage.
3.5: Antidiabetic effects: Curcumin is shown to improve the function of â-cell.
3.6: Effects against asthma, cough and fever: The improvement in condition of cough, dyspnoea and fevers has been shown.
4. Conclusion: Haridra works perfectly to improve the conditions generated by toxic effects of Gara visha.
Keywords: Visha, Gara visha, Haridra, Curcumin, Curcuma longa…….

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Paracelsus, the father of toxicology mentioned that the dose differentiates poison from drugs and others1. However, Merriam-webster dictionary defines poison as a substance that through its chemical action usually kills, injures or impairs an organism2. Originally, poison may be biological or non-biological, but toxins are chemical substances of biological origin3. They usually do not later the metabolic functions within organisms of their origin, but act as offensive or defensive reactions to other organism4. It means both have toxic effects. So, both are classified as Visha (poison) in Ayurveda.
On the basis of origin, Charak Samhita and Sushruta Samhita have classified poison in two types as sthavara (immobile) and jangham (mobile)5,6. Poison of vegetable and mineral origins are placed under sthavara while those from animal origins are under jangham. Sharangdhara Samhita has added one more types along with sthavara and jangham i.e., kritrima (synthetic or artificial) visha7. Kritrima visha is further classified as Gara and Dushi visha8. Gara visha is incompatible combination of poisonous and non-poisonous substances that exerts toxic effects causing deterioration of health leading to death9. If any visha vitiates the dhatu, it is called as dushi visha. It is aggravated direct breeze, uncooked food, cold, cloudy winter, sleeping during the day, ingestion of unsuitable food etc. leading to specific diseases10. Due to Gara visha, person becomes pale and emaciated. Digestive system weakens and disorders of liver and spleen are mentioned. Cough, dyspnoea, fever and upward movement of vata are suggested.11
To counter the toxic effects of different types of visha, vishaghna (anti-poison) drugs are used. Charak Sutrasthana 4/16 has mentioned vishaghna dashemani as Haridra, Manjistha, Suvaha, Sukshmaila, Palindi, Chandana, Kataka, Sirisha, Sindhuvara and Sleshmataka12. In number of places in Charak Samhita and Sushruta Samhita, Haridra is referred to various diseases including skin diseases, arthritis, psychosis and other problems, either as single drug or part of formulation with other drugs. In vitro and animal studies have shown that the Haridra possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflaammatory, wound healing and gastroprotective activities. These are toxic effects of Gara visha. The mechanism of action is discussed in present study.
2. Materials and Methods
Ayurvedic classical literatures, journals and other publications were screened. Articles from databases of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for related topics were searched and studied in details.
3. Result
3.1:Anti-inflammatory effects: The anti-inflammatory drugs act through receptors, signalling pathways, regulation of mediators to response tissue and by working on medium on target tissue14. The main chemical constituents of rhizome of Haridra are volatile oil and non-volatile curcuminoids15. The dried rhizome contains 1.5-5% volatile oil16.
Liju and others (2011) presented the anti-inflammatory effects of volatile oil of Haridra on carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory model, dextran-induced acute inflammatory model and formalin-induced chronic inflammatory model17. Anti-nociceptive activity was also shown on Balb/C mice17. The essential oil also provides synergistic effects to curcumin for its anti-inflammatory effects as revealed by Todon et al. (2017) 18. The study showed the better efficacy of essential oil-curcumin in compared to curcumin in terms of improved disease activity index. The upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL (interleukin)-10 and IL-11 and FOXP3 (forkhead box P3) was noted in dextran sodium sulfate- induced colitis in animal model18. Tumerones, major components of volatile oil, have successfully been evaluated for its activity against inflammation in xylene-induced ear edema and cotton pellet granuloma models in albino Swiss mice19. Kumar et al. (2018) demonstrated the inhibitory effects of essential oil from waste leaves of Haridra under in vitro study against production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-á, IL-6m IL-1â in the human keratinocyte cell line20. Topical application also ameliorated pro-inflammatory cytokines at protein and mRNA levels in tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- induced mouse model of inflammation20. Funk et al. (2010) studied the inhibitory effect of essential oil in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)- induced arthritis21.
Other than volatile oil, 95% concentration of three curcuminoids are present naming curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin22. The anti-inflammatory effect and neuroprotective activity of curcumin was studied. Zhang and others (2019)have shown that the curcumin to decrease the expression of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), IL-1â, IL-6 and CD/16/3223,24. It was also responsible for attenuation of TLR4/NF-kB (toll like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappaB) by balancing and alleviation of LPS (lipopolysaccharide)- induced inflammation23,24. Li et al. (2019) found by both in vivo and in vitro study that curcumin effectively attenuates cigarette smoke-induced inflammation through modulation of PPARy (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor y)- NFkB pathway25. The anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin are also shown through inhibition of the Janus kinase (JAK)-sgnal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway26.
3.2: Antioxidant effects: Antioxidant are molecules or compounds able to decrease the oxidative damage by reacting with free radicals or by inhibiting the activity or expression of free radicals27. Qiang and others (2021) have shown the DPHH free radical scavenging activity of volatile of Haridra28. The antioxidant activities of turmeric essential oil resulting to neuroprotective activity against cerebral ischemia in rats through caspase pathway is shown by Rathode et al. (2008)29.
The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) result for the ovarian oxidative stress induced in female Kunming mice has shown reversal of oxidative stress through MDA (malondialdehyde), SOD (superoxide dismutase) and glutathione peroxidase pathways30. Sokmen and Khan (2016) have shown the antioxidant activities of curcumin with other curcuminoids through DPHH and â-carotene assay31. Mosovska and others (2016) found antioxidant activities of curcumin through ABTS and FRAP assays32.
3.3: Gastroprotective effects: Various aetiologies work together to cause gastrointestinal problems as reactive oxygen species, nitric acid oxide synthase, lipid peroxidation, excessive secretion of acid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Heliocobacter pylori, foods etc.33 Many of these factors are also related with inflammation, aging and necrotic effects on drugs. The acetone extract of turmeric has been proven for gastroprotective effects against ethanol-induced damage in Wistar rats34. Molecular weight modified pectin from turmeric is responsible for antiulcer effects in rats by limiting the inflammatory factors35. Curcumin is significantly shown for its gastroprotective effects through indomethacin-induced gastric injury model in rats36.
3.4: Hepatoprotective and Spleen protector effects: Oxidative stress is a crucial factor for causing functional abnormalities in the liver as hepatocytic proteins, lipids and DNA are easily affected by ROS (reactive oxygen species)37. Such stress is induced by various agents including alcohol, drugs, viral infection, environmental pollutants, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis etc.38 Curcumin is proven antioxidant, inhibits lipid peroxidation and neutralize ROS by various modes including induction of haem oxygenase-1, a Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor) regulated gene playing a pivotal role to reduce many of stress39,40,41. Crude curcuminoid extract showed a significant cellular recovery of hepatocytes and reduction of hepatic enzymes and thiobarbituric acid reactive species values in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage42. It also helps to restore lymphocyte viability in thrombocytes and splenic helper lymphocytes42.
3.5: Antidiabetic effects: Both in vitro and in vivo studies show effectiveness of curcumin in delaying of diabetes by prevention of â-cell death and improvement of functions of â-cell43. It has protective role against glycation. It reduces blood glucose by regulation of polyol pathway in diabetic rats44.
3.6: Effects against asthma, cough and fever: A clinical study of 77 patients showed improvement in forced expiratory volume one second using curcumin. Clinical assessment was done for dyspnoea, wheezing cough, chest tightness and nocturnal symptoms45. Curcumin is also observed attenuating lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behaviour and fever in rats through modulation of Nrf2 activity46.

4. Conclusion
Screening of various researches done on Haridra and its constituents proves the efficacy of Haridra in amelioration of effects generated due to Gara visha. Effects of Gara visha are related with response of immune system. Haridra is proven for immunomodulatory effects through various mechanism for improvement in wound-healing, inflammation, cough, fever, diabetes etc. Classical texts suggest the gradual and sustained effects of Gara visha in long terms, so understanding based on genetic modification responsible for various metabolic changes are required. Gene expression studies based mentioned effects are needed.
Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest lies as per author.
Funding: Not funded
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