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Physiological Concept of Krodha (Anger)

*Dr. Rajendra Prasad Pathak,

Divisional Ayurvedic & Unani Officer (Retired), Shahjahanpur, UP
*Corresponding author: drrajendra22@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Background: Anger (Krodha) is emotional respond of feeling of wrong. It is responsible for illusion of memory and mind. It is mentioned under Dharaneeyavega by Charak Samhita. It is associated with vitiation of Pitta dosha in human beings. Pitta dosha brings various changes based on chemical metabolism and secretions. Physiological changes due to anger is observed as after effects.
Ayurvedic Concept: Ayurveda relates anger with Prakriti. It influences psychological, physical, immunological or physiological and behavioral traits of an individual. Pitta dominance Prakriti is associated with anger. Causing factors of anger are affiliated to Sadhaka Pitta.
Input and Output Circuit: Amygdala is integrative center of anger as feelings reaches here and evaluated through different circuit relays for appropriate action. Hypothalamus is important being related to input of amygdala. The septal nuclei are connected with pleasurable response. The neurons from periventricular nucleus of hypothalamus projects to pituitary and they are responsible for secretion of corticotropin releasing hormone and thyrotropin releasing hormone.
Discussion: Pungent, sour etc. are suggested as characteristics of Pitta. One of experiment on anaesthetized rats have shown that pungent compounds increase the catecholamine secretions. Epinephrine activates nervous system to regulate blood pressure by contracting vasculature, increasing the contraction of cardiac muscles and pupillary dilator through different receptors. It means, at molecular level, physiological alterations are observed with vitiations or changes in any of Tridosha.
Key words: Anger, Krodha, Tridosha, Pitta, Amygdala, Brain, Rajoguna
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