The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) announced on 11 February 2020 the name of new virus as ‘severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). On same date, World Health Organization declared the disease name as COVID-19. Millions of people are affected by COVID-19 across the globe. Study shows the shape of coronavirus virions as spherical to pleomorphic, means assumed to take various shapes. Projected glycoproteins are present as studs on envelop of this virus. These glycoproteins are responsible for attachment with host cells through Aminopeptidase-N and Sialic acid containing receptors. These glycoproteins carry antigens like 229E and OC43. Impacts of these antigens are totally different; however mechanism of interference with genome is having similarities as genomes are transcribed and translated. Both of them work through signaling. The reason is apparent for difficulties in invention of vaccines. There are always chances of new strains to come out, even once existing one is controlled.
Various studies disclose the growth of this virus on differentiated respiratory epithelial cells. Infected cells becomes vacuolated and fuse together to form syncytium. Damaging of cells triggers innate immune system and that responds in terms of nasal secretions and inflammation. Stronger immunity of human beings supports the system to fight and improve the conditions. Otherwise it results in respiratory obstructions, fever and other related systems. In many of infected people, as soon as antigens are introduced to body by coronavirus, interferons (groups of signaling proteins released by host cells) start working to combat. These are conditions when infected people do not develop symptoms. Other than these, immunoglobulins offered antibody-mediated defense also helps in protection from infection. Studies are needed to relate these with cell-mediated immunity as signaling of protein synthesis is an important part of infection. Such immunity cannot be developed overnight, but through continuous life-style, physical works, exposures to natural conditions and through herbal drugs. Ayurveda may play an important role in this.