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Concept of Karana-Karya (Cause-Effect) in Indian Philosophy

Man is the animal of connected logical discourse1. Aristotle finds interesting weaving of rational and irrational aspects in humans as inseparable and based on cause and origin2. It means nothing happens without cause/s3. Number of times matters are taken as effect which are formed after certain causes3. Hence, a person or thing that gives rise to an action, phenomenon or condition is termed as cause (Karana)4 and an effect of cause is Karya5. On certain occasions, numbers of causes appear for any effect (Karya). Some of them may be right even, but whatever is present till the performance of action, is considered as real Karana. It is invariably antecedent to some product and is not otherwise constituted6. Indian philosophy has contradictory theories on Karya-karana. Shankhya Darshana suggested Satkaryavada Siddhanta while Nyaya and Vaisheshika Darshana refers to Asatkaryavada Siddhanta.

According to Nyaya, theory of causality is called as Aarambhvaada, because effect is originated by causes. This origin is from within the causes. Nyaya Darshana has emphasized more on Nimitta Karana. They are inseparably connected. Two types of Avayava (components) are considered in Nyaya viz., Aarambhaka and Anaarambhaka. Those components giving rise to effects are called as Aarambhak while which cannot produce effect, is called as Anaarambhaka. Example: Effects are produced by complete article or material in complete form, but when material is broken, effects cannot be assumed……………

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