Prof. K.S.Sanjay Dr. Prashant Kumar Jha
Botanical Source: Leaves of Bidens pilosa Linn. from family Asteraceae.
Geographical Source: This plant is found throughout India up to height 4,500 feet in wasteland, garden etc.
Morphology: It is annual or perennial plant with stem up to 180 cm in height. Leaves are 1-pinnately compound with 3-7 lobes. Leaf blades are 2.5-8 x 1-4 cm in size, ovate to lanceolate in shape with serrate margin, usually ciliate. Bases are truncate to cuneate. Heads are in corymbs or single. Ray florets are white. Disc florets are with yellowish corollas. Inner achenes are blackish, 4-angled.
Microscopy: Leaf: The transverse section of leaves shows single layered epidermal cells (upper and lower) traversed by trichomes. In mesophyll region, a layer of palisade parenchyma cell is followed by few layers of spongy parenchyma cells. Collenchyma cells are present in midrib region. Bicollateral crescent-shaped vascular bundles are embedded in ground tissue.
Petiole: The transverse section of petiole shows a layer of epidermis traversed with trichomes at places. It is followed by collenchyma and parenchyma cells respectively. Crescent-shaped vascular bundles are present.
Stem: The transverse section of stem shows a layer of epidermis with glandular trichomes followed by collenchyma cells. Cortex is wide. Pericycle is discontinuous and is composed of sclerenchyma cells. Discontinuous ring of collateral vascular bundles is present.
Root: The transverse section of root shows a layer of epiblema is followed by cortex. A continuous ring of 3-5-layered sclerenchymatous pericycle covers the continuous ring of collateral, polyarch vascular bundles.
Chemical Constituents: The plant contains number of polyacetylenes. Phenylheptatriyne, phytosterin-B, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, friedelin, fridelan-3 beta-ol etc. are present
Uses: Phenylheptatriyne, linolenic acid and linoleic acid have revealed antimicrobial activity. Phytosterin-B have shown hypoglycaemic activity. Flavonoids like friedelin and friedelan-3 beta-ol have exhibited anti-inflammatory activities.